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The most suitable according to the similarity with Earth exoplanet Proxima b is studied in an expanded manner
Humanity sooner or later, but still will be forced to leave the Earth for various reasons. Can be overpopulation, can be a cataclysm, can be anything, but where in this case to fly Is there somewhere near something like that, where would a person like mind could be as comfortable to live on Scientists create telescopes, develop different missions to different planets and always around the goes one and the same under theme, need a different house, need a different planet. Exoplanets the Kepler telescope has found not a few, but out of order. Among all found exoplanets there are those on which climatic conditions and habitat are similar to terrestrial, but these planets are very far from the Earth. At those levels of engineering that we have and at that level of Astronautics that is, to fly there for eternity. We can say that all the desire to fly is multiplied by zero when you know this world is far from us.
There is in any situation, of course, a way out, you need to look for an exoplanet as close to the Earth and as similar to the Earth in terms of living conditions. The star Proxima Centauri came into view, it is not so far away, provided that we will fly at the speed of light, the whole path will take 4.2 years. Scientists about this miracle planet already know a lot of interesting things and many believe that the planet is at least very similar to our home Earth. To this conclusion, scientists came after they built a mathematical model of the planetary environment with all the data on the planet. The world stepped a stately, but to describe yet its brilliance can only be a science fiction writer and artist. Next to the figure there would be a place for two stars to the satellites alpha Centauri a and B. on this interesting topic in the scientific journal Astrobiology there is even an article by a group of scientists from the Goddard Institute of space research NASA. All that they wrote there, all based on what is obtained as a result of the mathematical model. In order to simulate climate change on Earth, scientists have a special software, they used it to find out what is there on a distant exoplanet for the climate. It turned out that Proxima b has a lot of water on the surface, and therefore the probability that there is life also grows.
The star on the side of which there was a suitable planet in its essence is not a hot star - a red dwarf, it is located next to our Sun, all in 4.2 light years. It seems that the system is close by astronomical standards, but scientists still do not know much about it, there is an accumulation of data. The star has only one planet is known, this is Proxima Centauri b, which was discovered in 2016. Proxima Centauri b seems to be slightly larger than the Earth, 1.3 times the full rotation around the star this large planet does in just 11 days.
Scientists put forward the theory that the planet may well be covered by oceans of water, the temperature on the surface is not critical, the planet is in the zone of life of its star. Seth there is enough heat and not too much. There is an assumption that the planet is facing the star on one side, one side cold, the other hot, and only in the transition zones more comfortable. The ocean on one side is covered with a crust of ice, but does not freeze completely, and on the other side does not have an ice crust and is significantly warmed up.
The new model was more accurate because it used more data affecting the climate environment. It was important for scientists to understand how such a planet is global heat distribution. It so happened that though on the back side everywhere the ocean froze, but there is still an Equatorial zone where there is a strip of not frozen ocean. Here the water does not freeze just because there are constant warm currents from the warm side of the planet. Several scenarios of heat distribution over the surface of Proxima Centauri b were used. There was also an option with large continents of land surrounded by water and pure water world. Decided even change in the course of calculations the data on water salinity in the oceans. In any case, it turned out that at least some part of the planet is constantly warmed up and has a pleasant temperature for life on the surface. To say more about the real surface of the planet, what is there, mountains or plains, seas or entire oceans, you will need to wait a bit until the moment when science will apply in practice more powerful and more modern telescopes.