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The first image of the atom and electron orbit
What you see in the photo, this is the first direct picture of the electron orbits of the atom! In order to obtain this result, the researchers used a new type of quantum microscope a device with a radical new approach to the study of quantum particles. The analysis of the orbital structure, or so to say the wave functions in space-time occupied by the electrons. When physicists try to describe these particles, they need to use wave function a mathematical method that describes quantum state and behavior of the particles. Typically, scientists use formulas such as the equation of Shredingera to describe these States and obtained in conveying complex graphs and a sequence of characters.
So far, however, it was not possible to state the fact directly the wave function. There are a number of technological obstacles that have to keep these mysterious particles from direct visibility. Generally, direct supervision requires radiation with certain frequency photons to obtain an image however, this violates the quantum state of the irradiated particles, and in the case of electrons does not work, as they absorb photons and increase their energy level.
What you need to do, so as not to increase the energy levels of these microscopic particles The answer comes if you use a quantum microscope a device which uses the photo method of polarization microscopy to obtain direct images of atoms. This scientific study, published in Physical Review Letters, Valery Stodolní from the Institute of atomic and molecular physics in the Netherlands, describes how the team managed to do. To identify direct visual structure of electronic orbits of the hydrogen atom, the hydrogen placed in a static electric field.
After irradiation of the atom with laser pulses, ionized electrons leave their orbit and then begin to follow a certain trajectory to a 2D detector. As there are many paths that electrons can follow to come to a single point, the result is a blurry picture, which reflects the wave function in real time. The researchers used in the next lens, which increased the result with 2D-detector with the image that you see in the beginning of the article. Amazingly, very interesting!
Interesting about the wave properties of the electron (Video)